General

Scientific Names: Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees

Common Names:Chuan Xin Lian, Yi Jian Xi, Zhan She Jian, Ku Cao, Lan He Lian.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为爵床科植物穿心功Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees的地上部分。

植物特征: 一年生草本,高50~100cm,全株味极苦。茎直立,多分枝,具四棱,节稍膨大。叶对生,卵状矩圆形至矩圆形披针形,长2~11cm,宽0.5~2.5cm,先端渐尖,基部楔形,全缘或浅波状,上面深绿色,下面灰绿色,侧脉3~4对;叶柄短或近无柄。圆锥花序顶生或腋生;花萼5深裂,外被腺毛;花冠淡紫白色,唇形,上唇外弯,2齿裂,下唇直立,3浅裂,雄蕊2,药室一大一小,大的被髯毛,花丝一侧有柔毛;子房2室。蒴果长椭圆形,长约1.5cm,两侧呈压扁状,中央具一纵沟。花期8~9月,果期10月。

生药材鉴定: 粉末:绿色。上下表皮均有含螺状钟乳体的晶细胞,老叶甚多,嫩叶较少。上表皮细胞多角形,垂体周壁较平直,晶细胞较大,呈棒状,两端钝圆,或一端膨大另端稍狭细,也有椭圆形或类圆形,长48-210μm,直径30-48μm,膨大端可至67μm;下表皮细胞垂周壁波状弯曲,晶细胞较小,多数呈卵形、纺锤形而稍弯曲,或类圆形,长约至115μm,亦有晶细胞甚小,直径约18μm;另有两个晶细胞相接的双钟乳体,以沿叶脉处较为多见。 下表皮气孔较密,直轴式,副卫细胞大小悬殊;少数为不定式,副卫细胞3-5个。腺鳞头部扁球形,4、6、8细胞,直径27-33μm;柄极短。短腺毛偶见,头部2细胞,柄部单细胞。非腺毛圆锥形,1-4细胞,先端钝圆,长19-144μm,基部直径至40μm,表面具角质线纹。叶粉末鲜绿色,味极苦。含钟乳体晶细胞甚多,常单个散在,以类圆形、长圆形较多见。此外,气孔、非腺毛及腺鳞均易见到。

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 叶含二萜内酯化合物:穿心莲甲素即去氧穿心莲内酯 0.1%以上,穿心莲乙素即穿心莲内酯1.5%以上,穿心莲丙素即穿心莲内酯0.2%以上;及高穿心莲内酯,潘尼内酯。还含穿心莲烷,穿心莲酮,穿心莲甾醇,β-谷甾醇-D-葡萄糖甙等。 根除含穿心莲内酯外,还含5-羟基-7,8,2',3'-四甲氧基黄酮、5-羟基-7,8,2'-三甲氧基黄酮、5,2'-二甲氧基黄酮、芹菜素-7,4'-二甲醚、α1-谷甾醇和KH2PO4等。 全草尚含14-去氧-11-氧化穿心莲内酯、14-去氧-11,12-二去氢穿心莲内酯。另据初步分析,还含甾醇皂甙、糖类及缩合鞣质等酚类物质。 又从叶、嫩枝、胚轴、根和胚芽的得的愈合组织,经培养分离,得三种倍半萜内酯化合物:榄核莲内酯A、B和C。

 

 

Efficacy

Andrographis paniculata extract is traditionally used as a medicine to treat different diseases in India, China and Southeast Asia. In the present study, we evaluated the anticancer and immunomodulatory activity of the methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in human cancer and immune cells. The methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata was fractionated into dichloromethane, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts and screened for bioactivity. Our results indicate that the dichloromethane fraction of the methanolic extract retains the active compounds contributing for both the anticancer and immunostimulatory activity. Dichloromethane fraction significantly inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 (colon cancer) cells and augments the proliferation human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) at low concentrations. On further fractionation of the dichloromethane extract we could isolate three diterpene compounds, i.e. [1] andrographolide, [2] 14-deoxyandrographolide and [3] 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide. Andrographolide showed anticancer activity on diverse cancer cells representing different types of human cancers. Whereas all the three molecules showed enhanced proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) induction in HPBLs. (source)

Andrographis paniculata plant extract is known to possess a variety of pharmacological activities. Andrographolide, the major constituent of the extract is implicated towards its pharmacological activity. We studied the cellular processes and targets modulated by andrographolide treatment in human cancer and immune cells. Andrographolide treatment inhibited the in vitro proliferation of different tumor cell lines, representing various types of cancers. The compound exerts direct anticancer activity on cancer cells by cell-cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase through induction of cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27 and decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Immunostimulatory activity of andrographolide is evidenced by increased proliferation of lymphocytes and production of interleukin-2. Andrographolide also enhanced the tumor necrosis factor-alpha production and CD marker expression, resulting in increased cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes against cancer cells, which may contribute for its indirect anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of the compound is further substantiated against B16F0 melanoma syngenic and HT-29 xenograft models. These results suggest that andrographolide is an interesting pharmacophore with anticancer and immunomodulatory activities and hence has the potential for being developed as a cancer therapeutic agent. (source)

治疗恶性葡萄胎与绒毛膜上皮癌 用穿心莲静脉滴注加手术治疗恶性葡萄胎与绒癌肺及阴道结节广泛转移7例,5例治愈,1例好转,1例死亡。治愈病例出院后均能参加体力劳动,定期追访,未见得发。实践证明,穿心莲对恶性葡萄胎与绒癌子宫的原发病灶消失,肺及阴道转移灶之吸收,均有明显的效果。一般每日滴注30毫升左右即见疗效,每日80毫升左右可使血液中嗜酸性白细胞升高。对原有寒战、发热反应者,静滴时同时加用异丙嗪,使反应减轻或消失。此药寒凉,长期使用可致恶心、腹泻、胃口不佳,配合其他中药调理,可渐消失。 (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Kumar RA, et al., Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jun; 92(2-3):291-5.
  2. Rajagopal S, et al., Andrographolide, a potential cancer therapeutic agent isolated from Andrographis paniculata. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2003 May-Jun; 3(3):147-58.
  3. See D, et al., Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers. Immunol Invest. 2002 May; 31(2):137-53.


IN VIVO:

  1. Singh RP, et al., Modulatory influence of Andrographis paniculata on mouse hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant status. Phytother Res. 2001 Aug; 15(5):382-90.
  2. Trivedi NP, et al., Hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in BHC induced liver damage in mice. Indian J Exp Biol. 2001 Jan; 39(1):41-6.

 

 

 

Safety

毒性和副作用 : 穿心莲毒性很小,小鼠口服粗结晶10克/公斤,活动减少,常闭眼不动似睡眠状,解剖后肉眼观察心、肾、肝、脾等外观正常;每天口服0.5克/公斤,连服10天,对小鼠的生长、食欲、大便、精神状态及红细胞计数、血红蛋白及白细胞分类计数等均未见异常。小鼠腹腔注射煎剂0.5克生药/只,24小时内2只鼠全部死亡,注射水提取物者则需1克生药/只,方有同样毒性。


 
   
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