General

Scientific Names: Cannabis sativa L.

Common Names: Da Ma, Huo Ma Ren, Da Ma Ren, Ma Zi.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为桑科植物大麻Cannabis sativa L.的果实。

植物特征: 大麻为一年生草本,植株高1~3米。茎直立,多分枝,具纵沟,密生短柔毛。基部稍木质化,皮层纤维发达。掌状复叶互生或下部对生,总叶柄长4~15厘米,有线状披针形托叶;小叶片3~11枚,披针形或线状披针形,两端渐尖,边缘具粗齿,表面深绿色,有糙毛,下面密被灰白色毡毛。花单性,雌雄异株,雄花集成长而疏散的圆锥花序,顶生或腋生,花被片5,长卵形,黄绿色;雌花丛生于叶腋,每花外有1卵形苞片,花被片1枚,绿色,膜质;雌蕊1,子房圆球形,花柱2。瘦果扁圆形,长4~5毫米,外包有黄褐色苞片,有毛,果皮坚硬,灰白色至灰褐色,表面平滑,具网纹。种子1枚。花期5~7月,果期6~9月。

生药材鉴定: 本品果实呈扁卵圆形,长4~5毫米,表面灰绿色或灰黄色,有光泽,并可见细微的白色或棕色网纹,顶端略尖,基部钝圆,有1徽凹的圆形果梗痕。果皮薄而脆,易碎。种皮暗绿色,子叶2枚,乳白色,富油性。气微,味淡(如嚼碎后稍有麻舌感)。以粒大、种仁饱满、无杂质者为佳。

 

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 大麻种子含脂肪油约30%。榨出的新油,绿黄色,经久则变褐黄色;碘价为140~170 (通常为150~166),属于干性油。油的脂肪酸,饱和的为4.5~9.5%;不饱和的脂肪酸中,油酸约为12%,亚油酸53%,亚麻酸25%。油中含一些大麻酚。又含植酸钙镁(Phytin),含率比叶、茎、芽中还多;种仁中含率可达1%。种子含胡卢巴碱及dl-异白氨酸甜菜碱[dl- isoleucine betaine];尚含脂肪油约30%,为干性油,油中含饱和脂肪酸6.8%~13.8%,油酸13.1%~19.9%,亚油酸43%~58%,亚麻酸14%~27%。此外含麻仁球朊酶(edesinase)及蛋白质等。

 

 

 

Efficacy

Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa Linnaeus (marijuana) and their derivatives have received renewed interest in recent years due to their diverse pharmacologic activities such as cell growth inhibition, anti-inflammatory effects and tumor regression. Here we show that expression levels of both cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are significantly higher in CA-human papillomavirus-10 (virally transformed cells derived from adenocarcinoma of human prostate tissue), and other human prostate cells LNCaP, DUI45, PC3, and CWR22Rnu1 than in human prostate epithelial and PZ-HPV-7 (virally transformed cells derived from normal human prostate tissue) cells. WIN-55,212-2 (mixed CB1/CB2 agonist) treatment with androgen-responsive LNCaP cells resulted in a dose- (1-10 micromol/L) and time-dependent (24-48 hours) inhibition of cell growth, blocking of CB1 and CB2 receptors by their antagonists SR141716 (CB1) and SR144528 (CB2) significantly prevented this effect. Extending this observation, we found that WIN-55,212-2 treatment with LNCaP resulted in a dose- (1-10 micromol/L) and time-dependent (24-72 hours) induction of apoptosis (a), decrease in protein and mRNA expression of androgen receptor (b), decrease in intracellular protein and mRNA expression of prostate-specific antigen (c), decrease in secreted prostate-specific antigen levels (d), and decrease in protein expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen and vascular endothelial growth factor (e). Our results suggest that WIN-55,212-2 or other non-habit-forming cannabinoid receptor agonists could be developed as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of prostate cancer. (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Sarfaraz S, et al., Cannabinoid receptor as a novel target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2005 Mar 1; 65(5):1635-41.
  2. Leuchtenbergher C, et al., The effects of naturally occurring metabolites (L-cysteine, vitamin C) on cultured human cells exposed to smoke of tobacco or marijuana cigarettes. Cytometry. 1984 Jul; 5(4):396-402.
  3. Leuchtenberger C, et al., Protection of hamster lung cultures by L-cysteine or vitamin C against carcinogenic effects of fresh smoke from tobacco or marihuana cigarettes. Br J Exp Pathol. 1977 Dec; 58(6):625-34.






 

Safety

宜忌: 《本草经集注》:“畏牡蛎、白薇,恶茯苓。” 《食性本草》:“多食损血脉,滑精气,妇人多食发带疾。” 《本草从新》:“肠滑者尤忌。”


 
   
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