Scientific Names: Bidens bipinnata L.

Common Names:Gui Zhen Cao, San Ye Gui Zhen Cao.



来 源: 为菊科植物三叶鬼针草Bidens pilosa L.的全草。

植物特征: 一年生草本,高25~100cm。茎直立,四棱形,疏生柔毛或无毛。中下部叶对生,叶片3~7深化裂至羽状复叶,很少下部为单叶,小叶片质薄,卵形或卵状椭圆形,有锯齿或分裂,下部叶有长叶柄,向上逐渐变短;上部叶互生,3裂或不裂,线状披针形。头状花序开花时直径约为8mm,有长梗;总苞片7~8,匙形,边缘有细软毛;外层托片狭长圆形,内层托片狭披针形;舌状花白色或黄色,4~7朵或有时无,部分不育;管状花黄褐色,长约4.5mm,5裂。瘦果线形,成熟后黑褐色,长7~15mm,有硬毛;冠毛芒刺状,3~4枚,长1.5~2.5mm。花果期9~11月。





化学成分: 鬼针草 含水杨酸、原儿茶酸、没食子酸及脂肪酸类化合物。




Catechol (CAS: 120-80-9), given in drinking water to rats, was the most effective of 5 phenols in enhancing [3H]thymidine incorporation [( 3H]dThd-l) into esophageal DNA. To test for esophageal cocarcinogenesis, groups of 30 male MRC-Wistar rats received 3 weekly ip injections of 25 mg methyl-n-amylnitrosamine [(MNAN) CAS: 13256-07-0]/kg. From the time of the first MNAN injection, each group also received catechol, tannic acid (CAS: 1401-55-4), dried leaves of Bidens pilosa L., or croton oil (CAS: 8001-28-3) (respectively, 2, 10, 50, and 2 g/kg semipurified diet), or were given 20 ip injections of 6 mg phorbol (CAS: 17673-25-5)/rat. The rats were killed after 20-45, 46-52, or 53-72 weeks (subgroups A, B, and C). In the group given MNAN alone, most esophageal papillomas developed during the first 45 weeks. Both catechol and B. pilosa significantly increased the esophageal papilloma multiplicity (No. of papillomas/rat) induced by MNAN, with a maximum tumor yield of 2.2 times that in the corresponding subgroup treated with MNAN alone. Papilloma multiplicity increased from subgroup A to subgroup C in the MNAN plus B. pilosa group but not in the MNAN plus catechol group. No tumors were induced by the test cocarcinogens given without MNAN. We concluded that a) an increased esophageal [3H]dThd-I indicates potential cocarcinogenicity and b) catechol and B. pilosa were weak esophageal cocarcinogens. These results support the view that catechol in cigarette smoke and B. pilosa as eaten in South Africa contribute to the etiology of human esophageal cancer. (source)


  1. Wang J, et al., [Inhibition of 5 compounds from Bidens bipinnata on leukemia cells in vitro. Zhong Yao Cai. 1997 May; 20(5):247-9. Chinese.
  2. Chang JS, et al., Antileukemic activity of Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff and Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Am J Chin Med. 2001; 29(2):303-12.
  3. Alvarez L, et al., Bioactive polyacetylenes from Bidens pilosa. Planta Med. 1996 Aug; 62(4):355-7.


  1. Mirvish SS, et al., Test of catechol, tannic acid, Bidens pilosa, croton oil, and phorbol for cocarcinogenesis of esophageal tumors induced in rats by methyl-n-amylnitrosamine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1985 Jun; 74(6):1283-90.