General

Scientific Names: Aloe vera L.

Common Names: Lu Hui, You Cong, Xiang Bi Cao, Luo Wi Hua, Wu Qi.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为百合科植物芦荟Aloe vera L.ver.chinensis(Haw.) Berger的叶汁干燥品。

植物特征: 多年生肉质草本。叶簇生,螺旋状排列,直立,肥厚,狭披针形,长10~20cm,宽1.5~2.5cm,厚5~8mm,先端渐尖,边缘有刺状小齿,基部阔而抱茎。花茎单生或分枝,高60~90 cm;总状花序疏散;花梗长约2.5cm,黄色或有紫色斑点,具膜质苞片;花被筒状,6裂,裂片稍向外弯;雄蕊6,花药2室,背着;子房上位,3室,花柱线形。蒴果三角形,长约8mm。花期7~8月。

生药材鉴定: 为不规则团块或破碎的颗粒,棕褐色或墨绿色。质松脆,易碎,破碎面光泽,具玻璃样光泽。有特异臭气,味极苦。

 

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 叶含芦蔡甙(aloin)、异芦荟甙、β-芦荟甙、芦荟大黄素(aloe-emodim)及芦荟糖甙A、B(aloinoside A、B)等。

 

 

 

Efficacy

We examined the modifying effect of whole-leaf Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (designated as 'ALOE') on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions, in the rat colorectum. Male F344 rats (4 weeks old) were fed the basal diet, or experimental diets containing 1% or 5% ALOE for 5 weeks. One week later, all rats except those in the vehicle-treated groups were injected s.c. with AOM (15 mg/kg, once weekly for 3 weeks). At 9 weeks of age, all the rats were killed, and the colorectum and liver were evaluated for ACF and cytosolic quinone reductase (QR; a phase 2 enzyme), respectively. In rats given AOM and ALOE (1% or 5% in diet) the numbers of ACF/colorectum, aberrant crypts/colorectum, aberrant crypts/focus and large ACF/colorectum were significantly decreased compared with those of rats given AOM alone (all p < 0.01). No ACF were found in rats treated without AOM. In addition, ALOE significantly increased cytosolic QR activity in the liver (p < 0.01). These results indicated that ALOE inhibited the development of AOM-induced ACF in the rat colorectum, with increased QR activity in the liver, and therefore suggested that ALOE might have a chemopreventive effect against colon carcinogenesis at least in the initiation stage. (source)

芦荟醇提取物1∶500,在体内可抑制小鼠肉瘤(S180)抑制率为52.3%。灌胃给芦荟素50mg/kg,对小鼠肝癌实体型(Heps)抑制率为45%。

临床用于治疗白血病等。 用当时芦荟丸治白血病:当归30g,芦荟15g,黄柏、龙胆草、栀子、黄芩各30g,青黛、大黄各15g,木香9g,炼蜜为丸,每丸重约5g,口服,每日3~4丸,渐增至6~9丸,治慢性粒细胞白血病28例,缓解16例,进步6例,总有效率为78.6%。病程愈短,疗效愈好。 (source)

芦荟含有抗癌成份,日本的添田百枝博士在80年代就实验证明,芦荟可以治癌,以后又陆续由国内外其它学者证实。根据赛维芦荟公司研究室和华西医科大学的资料认为芦荟中的抗氧化物质可直接抑制癌细胞的增殖,并能分解致癌物质促进其排泄;也含芦荟素A(分子量1.8万的糖蛋白)是一种罕见的免疫赋活剂,它能增强体内自然杀伤细胞的活性水平,并能激活巨噬细胞系统,和使白细胞增加,因而增强了机体的免疫力;芦荟植物凝聚素是芦荟中所含的另一种免疫物质,它能诱导与免疫有关的细胞分裂和活化;如促使TNF(肿瘤坏死因子)的产生。对癌细胞进行特异性的杀伤。因而芦荟有防癌治癌的作用。 (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Lin SY, et al., Effect of inhibition of aloe-emodin on N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human malignant melanoma cells (A375.S2). Melanoma Res. 2005 Dec; 15(6):489-94.
  2. Centeno JA, et al., Blood and tissue concentration of cesium after exposure to cesium chloride: a report of two cases. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Aug; 94(2):97-104.

IN VIVO:

  1. National Toxicology Program. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of EMODIN (CAS NO. 518-82-1) Feed Studies in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. Natl Toxicol Program Tech Rep Ser. 2001 Jun; 493:1-278.
  2. Shimpo K, et al., Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in rat colorectum by whole leaf Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger. Phytother Res. 2001 Dec; 15(8):705-11.
  3. Kupchan SM, et al., Tumor inhibitors. 114. Aloe emodin: antileukemic principle isolated from Rhamnus frangula L. Lloydia. 1976 Jul-Aug; 39(4):223-4.

 

 

 

Safety

宜忌: 孕妇忌服。《本草经疏》:“凡儿脾胃虚寒作泻及不思食者禁用。”


 
   
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