General

Scientific Names: Boswellia carterii Birdw.

Common Names: Ru Xiang Shu, Ru Xiang, Er Xiang, Zhi Ru Xiang, Chao Ru Xaing, Cu Ru Xiang, Jiu Ru Xiang, Sheng Ru Xaing, Ming Ru Xiang.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为橄榄科(Burseraceae)植物卡氏乳香树皮部渗出的油胶树脂。

植物特征: 卡氏乳香树 Boswellia carterii Birdwo(B.sacranuek.)
矮小乔木,高4—5m。树皮淡棕黄色。叶互生,密集形成叶簇,或于上部疏生,奇数羽状复叶,长15—25cm,叶柄被白毛,小叶7—9对,对生,无柄,小叶片长卵形,边缘有不规则的齿裂至近全缘,两面均被白毛或上面无毛。 花小,排成稀疏的总状花序;花瓣5,淡黄色;雄蕊10;花盘大,肥厚,圆盘形。果实小,长约1cm,倒卵形,有三棱,钝头,果皮光滑,肉质,肥厚,折生成3—4瓣膜。花期4月。

生药材鉴定: 干燥胶树脂,多呈小形乳头状、泪滴状颗粒或不规则的小块,长0.5~3厘米,有时粘连成团块。淡黄色,常带轻微的绿色、蓝色或棕红色。半透明。表面有一层类白色粉尘,除去粉尘后,表面仍无光泽。质坚脆,断面蜡样,无光泽,亦有少数呈玻璃样光泽。气微芳香,味微苦。嚼之,初破碎成小块,迅即软化成胶块,粘附牙齿,唾液成为乳状,并微有香辣感。遇热则变软,烧之微有香气(但不应有松香气),冒黑烟,并遗留黑色残渣。与少量水共研,能形成白色乳状液。以淡黄色、颗粒状、半透明、无砂石树皮杂质、粉末粘手、气芳香者为佳。

 

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 含树脂 60~70%,树胶27~35%,挥发油3~8%。树脂的主要成分为游离 a、B一乳香脂酸(a、B一Boswellicacid)33%,结合乳香脂酸1.5%,乳香树脂烃(Olibanore-sene) 33%。树胶为阿糖酸(Arabic acid)的钙盐和镁盐20%,西黄芪胶粘素(Bassorin)6%;此外,尚含苦味质0.5%。挥发油呈淡黄色,有芳香,含蒎烯(Pinene)、消旋一柠檬烯(Dipentene)及a、B一水芹烯(a、B一Phellandrene),其主要的芳香成分未明。及其衍生物和间甲基酚(o-cresol),中性部分含α-、β-香树脂素(α-,β-amyrin)的衍生物如α-香树脂酮(α-amyrone,α-amyrinone)尚含绿花白千层醇(viridiflorol)、乳香萜烯(insensole)及氧化乳香萜烯(insensole oxide)。树胶主要含多聚糖,分离得多聚糖I(polysaccharide I),水解得阿拉伯糖、半乳糖及糖醛酸(uronic acid);多聚糖Ⅱ(polysaccharide Ⅱ),水解得糖醛及半乳糖。挥发油中乙酸正辛酯(octyl acetate)占92.46%,乙酸龙脑酯约1.4%,榄香烯0.22%,并含β-水芹烯(β-phellandrene)等。

 

 

 

 

Efficacy

Boswellic acid acetate (BC-4), a compound isolated from the herb Boswellia carterii Birdw., can induce differentiation and apoptosis of leukemia cells. Based on cell morphology and NBT reduction, BC-4 induced monocytic differentiation of myeloid leukemia HL-60, U937 and ML-1 cells at a dose under 12.5 microg/ml (24.2 microM). BC-4 was a potent inducer, with 90% of the cells showing morphologic changes and 80-90% of the cells showing NBT reduction. Specific and non-specific esterase were also increased by BC-4. Based on benzidine staining assay, BC-4 failed to induce erythroid leukemia DS-19 and K562 cells differentiation. In contrast to its selective differentiation effect, BC-4 strongly inhibited growth of all cell lines tested. The growth inhibition effect was dose- and time-dependent. In HL-60 cells, 20 microg/ml (38.8 microM) of BC-4 decreased viable cell number by 60% at 24 h, whereas at 3 days there was virtually no viable cells. Morphologic and DNA fragmentation analysis proved that BC-4 induced cell apoptosis. The dual apoptotic and differentiation effects of BC-4 suggest that it may be a powerful agent in the treatment of leukemia. (source)

The induction of cell differentiation and growth inhibition of HL-60 cells by Bc-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii, was studied in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of HL-60 cells was found to be inhibited by Bc-4 at a concentration of 5-10 micrograms/ml. Under the action of Bc-4, the acid phosphatase and NBT reduction activities in HL-60 cells were increased, and phagocytosis of cells was also induced. All these activities were concentration dependent. The HL-60 cells were induced by Bc-4 to differentiate into more mature cells morphologically. The in vivo growth of HL-60 cells in mouse subrenal capsules (SRC) and in diffusion chambers inoculated into mice was inhibited by Bc-4 at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The morphology of HL-60 cells treated by Bc-4 in diffusion chambers exhibited characteristics of mature granulocytic cells. (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Qi Z, et al., [Experimental study on induction of apoptosis of leukemic cells by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive]. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1999; 24(1):23-5. Chinese.
  2. Jing Y, et al., Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in leukemia cell lines. Leuk Res. 1999 Jan; 23(1):43-50.
  3. Jing YK, et al., [Combination induction of cell differentiation of HL-60 cells by daidzein (S86019) and BC-4 or Ara-C]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1993; 28(1):11-6. Chinese.
  4. Jing Y, et al., Growth inhibition and differentiation of promyelocytic cells (HL-60) induced by BC-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii Birdw. Chin Med Sci J. 1992 Mar; 7(1):12-5.

IN VIVO:

  1. Jing Y, et al., Growth inhibition and differentiation of promyelocytic cells (HL-60) induced by BC-4, an active principle from Boswellia carterii Birdw. Chin Med Sci J. 1992 Mar; 7(1):12-5.

 

 

 

Safety

宜忌: 孕妇忌服。《本草经疏》:“痈疽已溃不宜服,诸疮脓多时,未宜遽用。” 《本经逢原》:“胃弱勿用。”


 
   
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