Scientific Names: Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.
Common Names:She Gan,
Bian Zhu, Shan Pu Shan, Hu Die Hua.
鸢尾科植物射干Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC.多年生草本，高50～120cm。根状茎横生，略呈结节状，外皮鲜黄色，生多数须根。茎直立，下部生叶。叶2列，嵌迭状排列，宽剑形，扁平，长25～60cm，宽2～4cm，绿色，常带白粉，基部抱茎，叶脉平行。聚伞花序伞房状顶生；总花梗和小花梗基部具膜质的苞片， 花桔黄色，直径3～5cm，花被片 6，椭圆形，长2～2.5cm，宽约 1cm，散生暗红色斑点，内轮 3片较外轮 3片略小，基部合生成短筒，雄蕊3，着生在花被片基部；子房下位，3室，花柱棒状，顶端 3浅裂，被短柔毛。蒴果倒卵圆球形，长2.5～3.5cm，有 3纵棱，成熟时沿缝线 3瓣裂。种子黑色，近球形，有光泽。花期7～9月，果期8～9月。
根茎呈不规则结节状， 有分枝， 长3～10cm，直径1～2cm。 表面黄棕色、暗棕色或黑棕色， 皱缩不平， 有较密而扭曲的环纹。上面有数个圆盘状凹陷的茎痕，下面有残留的细根及根痕。 质硬， 折断面黄色，颗粒性。气微、味苦、微辛。以粗壮、质硬、断面色黄者为佳。
根茎含射干定(Belamcandin)、鸢尾甙(Iridin)、鸢尾黄酮甙(Tectoridin)、 鸢尾黄酮 (Tectori-genin)。花、叶含芒果甙(Mangiferin)。根茎含鸢尾甙(shekanin ,tectoridin)；又谓自栽培品分离出铁扁担甙(belamcandin)和野鸢尾甙(香鸢尾甙，iridin),其甙元为野鸢尾黄酮(射干甲素，irigenin)。另分得次野鸢尾黄酮(洋鸢尾素，irisflorentin)、射干酮(shenganone)和茶叶花宁(apocynin)。又含鸢尾甙元(tectori-genin)、鼠李秦素(甲基鼠李素)及野鸢尾黄酮。
Isoflavones have been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on cancer cells by steroid receptor signaling. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of plant constituents extracted from Belamcanda chinensis as anticancer drugs, which regulate the aberrant expression of genes relevant in proliferation, invasion, immortalization and apoptosis. LNCaP cells were treated with B.chinensis extract, tectorigenin or other isoflavones and mRNA expression was quantified by using real time RT-PCR. In addition, ELISA, TRAP assays and western blots were used to measure protein expression or activity. Male nude mice (n=18) were injected subcutaneously with LNCaP cells and were fed with extracts from B.chinensis, and tumor development was monitored versus a control animal group (n=18). Tectorigenin and several other phytochemicals downregulated PDEF, PSA and IGF-1 receptor mRNA expression in vitro. Furthermore, PSA secretion and IGF-1 receptor protein expression were diminished, and hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity decreased after tectorigenin treatments. However, TIMP-3 mRNA was upregulated on tectorigenin treatment. Growth of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice was delayed and diminished in animals fed with extracts from B.chinensis. The downregulation of PDEF, PSA, hTERT and IGF-1 receptor gene expression by tectorigenin demonstrates the antiproliferative potential of these agents. The upregulation of TIMP-3 gene expression indicates a pro-apoptotic function of the drug and a reduction of the invasiveness of tumors. The animal experiments demonstrate that B.chinensis markedly inhibited the development of tumors in vivo. Thus, these compounds may be useful for the prevention or treatment of human prostate cancer. (source)
The present study was carried out to clarify whether tectorigenin and tectoridin isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis (Iridaceae) inhibit angiogenesis by the experimental methods in vitro and in vivo. Tectorigenin and tectoridin decreased angiogenesis of both chick embryos in the chorioallantoic membrane assay and basic fibroblast growth factor-induced vessel formation in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Both compounds also reduced the proliferation of calf pulmonary arterial endothelial (CPAE) cells and found to possess relatively weak gelatinase/collagenase inhibitory activity in vitro. Tectorigenin exhibited a much stronger anti-proliferative activity than its glycoside, tectoridin and was almost equipotent to that of genistein, a reference drug. Tectorigenin, when administered subcutaneously at the dose of 30 mg/kg for 20 days to mice implanted with murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC), caused a significant inhibition of tumor volume by 30.8 %. Tectorigenin and tectoridin, when treated i. p. at the same dosage for 10 days to ICR mice bearing sarcoma 180, caused a significant suppression in tumor weight by 44.2 and 24.8 %, respectively. (source)
- Thelen P, et al.,
[Pharmacological potential of phytoestrogens in the treatment of prostate cancer.] Urologe A. 2005 Oct 20; [Epub ahead of print] German.
- Thelen P, et al., Tectorigenin and other phytochemicals extracted from leopard lily Belamcanda chinensis affect new and established targets for therapies in prostate cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2005 Aug; 26(8):1360-7. Epub 2005 Apr 21.
- Monthakantirat O, et al.,
Phenolic constituents of the rhizomes of the Thai medicinal plant Belamcanda chinensis with proliferative activity for two breast cancer cell lines.
J Nat Prod. 2005 Mar; 68(3):361-4.
- Morrissey C, et al., PHYTOESTROGENS DERIVED FROM BELAMCANDA CHINENSIS HAVE AN ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT ON PROSTATE CANCER CELLS IN VITRO.
J Urol. 2004 Dec; 172(6, Part 1 of 2):2426-2433.
- Jung SH, et al.,
Anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of isoflavonoids from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis.
Planta Med. 2003 Jul; 69(7):617-22.
- Thelen P, et al., Tectorigenin and other phytochemicals extracted from leopard lily Belamcanda chinensis affect new and established targets for therapies in prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Aug; 26(8):1360-7. Epub 2005 Apr 21.