Scientific Names: Caesalpinia sappan L.
Common Names: Su Mu,
Su Fang Mu, Hong Cai, Su Fang, Zong Mu, Chi Mu.
为豆科植物苏木Caesalpinia sappan L.的心材。
灌木或小乔木，树干有刺。二回羽状复叶互生，有锥刺状托叶，叶轴有棘刺；羽片9—12对，小叶10-15对，密生；小叶长方形，长15—20mm，宽6—7mm，先端钝而微缺，基部偏斜，两面近无毛，有腺点；无柄。圆锥花序顶生或腋生；花萼5裂，略不整齐；花瓣5，黄色，最下1片较小；雄蕊10，花丝下半部密被绵毛；子房线状披针形，密被短绒毛。荚果偏斜倒卵形，扁平，木质，顶端斜截形，有喙，红棕色，有光泽。 花期6—9月，果期次年夏季。 生于高温多湿、阳光充足和肥沃的山坡、沟边及村旁。产于台湾、广东、广西、云南、四川。
Caesalpinia sappan L. (C. sappan) has been used in Oriental medicine as an antitumor agent. The present study shows the effects of the chloroform extract of C. sappan on cell death in head and neck cancer cell lines. The viability of HNSCC4 and HNSCC31 cells (head and neck cancer cell lines) was noticeably decreased compared to that of HaCaT cells (control group) in the presence of chloroform extract. No significant difference was observed in the viability of HNSCC4 and HNSCC31 cells when compared with HaCaT cells in the presence of n-butanol, methanol, and water extracts. Exposure to the chloroform extract of C. sappan resulted in an increase in the Sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle and condensation and shrinkage of nuclei in the HNSCC4 and HNSCC31 cells. The levels of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 were also increased in the HNSCC4 and HNSCC31 cells. The results suggest that the chloroform extract of C. sappan may increase cell death in the HNSCC4 and HNSCC31 cells, which is linked to increased cellular levels of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1. (source)
Brazilin (7,11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d]pyran-3,6a,9,10 (6H)-tetrol) isolated from Caesalpinia sappan has been known as a natural red pigment. Many studies suggest that inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) plays an important role in inflammation and carcinogenesis. On this line, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of brazilin on nitric oxide (NO) production and investigated its mechanism of action. As a result, brazilin exhibited the inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=24.3 microM). In addition, brazilin suppressed LPS-induced iNOS protein and mRNA expression in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, indicating that the inhibitory activity of brazilin possibly involved in the regulation of iNOS expression. To further investigate the mechanism responsible for the suppression of iNOS gene expression by brazilin, the effect of brazilin on LPS-induced transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was examined. The DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 stimulated LPS was inhibited by treatment of brazilin in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that brazilin-mediated inhibition of NO production might be associated with the regulation of transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1. Taken together, these findings suggest that the suppressive effect of iNOS gene expression by brazilin might provide one possible mechanism for its anti-inflammatory and cancer chemopreventive activity. (source)
- Kim EC, et al.,
Caesalpinia sappan induces cell death by increasing the expression of p53 and p21WAF1/CIP1 in head and neck cancer cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2005; 33(3):405-14.
- Bae IK, et al.,
Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by brazilin in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr 25; 513(3):237-42. Epub 2005 Apr 15.
- Hong CH, et al., Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov; 83(1-2):153-9.
- Hong CH, et al.,
Evaluation of natural products on inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cultured mouse macrophage cells.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov; 83(1-2):153-9.
- Liu XR, et al., [Treatment of intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia of gastric mucosa with xiao wei yan powder].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Oct; 12(10):602-3, 580. Chinese.