General

Scientific Names: Asparagus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Merr.

Common Names: Tian Men Dong, Dian Le, Wan Sui Teng, Po Luo Shu, Tian Ji, Bai Luo Shan, Duo Er Mu, Si Dong.

BOTANICAL:

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Herbs dioecious. Roots with swollen, tuberous part 3--5 × 1--2 cm. Stems climbing, 1--2 m, slightly woody proximally; branches angled or narrowly winged. Cladodes usually in fascicles of 3, subfalcate, 0.5--8 cm × 1--2 mm, flat or slightly 3-angled. Leaf spur sometimes spinescent; spine 2.5--3.5 mm on main stems, minute or indistinct on branches. Inflorescences developing after cladodes, axillary. Flowers of both sexes usually paired, subequal; pedicel 2--6 mm, articulate at middle. Male flowers: perianth greenish, campanulate, 2.5--3 mm; filaments free. Berry green, 6--7 mm in diam., 1- or 2-seeded. Fl. May--Jun, fr. Sep. 2 n = 20*.

Thinly forested slopes, roadsides, waste fields; near sea level to 1700 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.

植物形态: 攀援状多年生草本。茎细,有纵槽纹。叶状枝2~3枚簇生叶腋,线形,扁平,长1~3cm,宽1mm左右,叶退化为鳞片,主茎上的鳞状叶常变为下弯的短刺。花1~3朵簇生叶腋,黄白色或白色;花被片6;雌蕊1,子房3室。浆果球形,熟时红色。花期5月。

来源: 为百合科多年生攀缘状草本植物天门冬Asparagus cochinchinensis (LouH) Merr.的块根。

生药材鉴定: 1.性状鉴定:干燥的块根呈长圆纺锤形,中部肥满,两端渐细而钝,长6-20cm,中部直径0.5-2cm。表面黄白色或浅黄棕色,呈油润半透明状,有时有细纵纹或纵沟,偶有未除净的黄棕色外皮。干透者质坚硬而脆,未干透者质柔软,有粘性,断面蜡质样,黄白色,半透明,中间有不透明白心。臭微,味甘微苦。以肥满、致密、黄白色、半透明者为佳。条瘦长、色黄褐、不明亮者质次。同属植物羊齿天门冬AsparagusfilicinusexD.DonHam.(参见土百部条)、小茎叶天冬A.MeiocladosLevl.(分布云南)及A.SpinasissimusWangetS.C.Chen(分布西藏)的块根,在少数地区亦作天门冬入药。 2.显微鉴定:块根横切面:根被偶有残存。皮层宽广;外侧有石细胞断续排列成环,厚2-4列,石细胞类圆形、类多角形或方形,壁厚度不一,纹孔细密,孔沟清晰;内皮层细胞凯氏带明显。中柱鞘1-2列薄壁细胞;木质部及韧皮部束各35-80-100个,两者相间排列,有的导管深入至髓部;髓大。本品薄壁组织散列粘液细胞,含草酸钙晶束,尤以石细胞环带及其周围为多,在近内皮层处几成环列,髓部则少见。 3.粉末:灰黄色。 3.1.石细胞长方形、长条形、类圆形或长梭形,长85-460(-600)um,直径30-90um,壁厚5-37um,纹孔细密,孔沟细而短,有的壁甚厚,纹孔及孔沟不明显。 3.2.草酸钙针晶束散在或存在于粘液细胞中,长40-100um。 3.3.具缘纹孔及梯状具缘纹孔导管直径约至110um。此外,有傍管木薄壁细胞、纤维管胞、内皮层细胞等。本品以肥满、致密、色黄白、半透明者为佳。

资源分布: 分布我国中部、西北、长江流域及南方各地。药材主产贵州、四川、广西。此外,浙江、云南、陕西、甘肃、安徽、湖北、河南、江西等地亦产。以贵州产量最大,品质亦佳。

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 根含天门冬素(天冬酞胺Asparagine)、粘液质、B-谷甾醇及5-甲氧基甲基糠醛。所含苦味成分为甾体皂甙,由菝葜皂甙元(Smilagenin)、鼠李糖、木糖和葡萄糖组成。块根含天冬酰胺(asparagine)及瓜氨酸、丝氨酸、苏氨酸、脯氨酸、甘氨酸等19种氨基酸,还含β-谷甾醇、5-甲氧基甲基呋喃甲醛(5-methoxy-methylfural)、葡萄糖、果糖。尚含多种低聚糖:三聚糖(Ⅰ)、四聚糖(Ⅱ)、五聚糖(Ⅲ)、六聚糖(Ⅳ)、八聚糖(Ⅴ)、九聚糖(Ⅵ)和十聚糖(Ⅶ),另含多种螺甾甙类化合物,如天冬甙-Ⅳ-Ⅶ(asp-Ⅳ-Ⅶ)。

  1. Yang CX, et al., Nor-lignans and steroidal saponins from Asparagus gobicus. Planta Med. 2004 May; 70(5):446-51.
  2. Marz W, et al., [Asparagus in asparaginase therapy?]. Med Monatsschr Pharm. 1999 Dec; 22(12):393. German.
  3. Sati OP, et al., Cytotoxic saponins from Asparagus and Agave. Pharmazie. 1985 Aug; 40(8):586.
  4. Stirpe F, et al., Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).Biochem J. 1983 Dec 15; 216(3):617-25.
  5. Kawaoka K. [A scanning electron microscope study of the fine angioarchitecture of "punctation" and "atypical vessels" (author's transl)].Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1980 Jul; 32(7):823-32. Japanese.

 

Efficacy

抗肿瘤作用:体外试验(美蓝法及瓦氏呼吸器测定),天门冬对急件淋巴细胞型白血病、慢性粒细胞型白血病及急性单核细胞型白血病患者白细胞的脱氢酶有一定的抑制作用,并能抑制急性淋巴细胞型白血病患者白细胞的呼吸。

IN VITRO:

  1. Diwanay S, et al., Immunoprotection by botanical drugs in cancer chemotherapy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Jan; 90(1):49-55.
  2. Lu Q, et al., [A cohort study on the relationship between vegetable intake and risks of lung cancer in the Tin Corporation (YTC) miners in Yunnan]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Jun; 21(3):205-7. Chinese.
  3. Koo HN, et al., Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced apoptosis by Asparagus cochinchinensis in Hep G2 cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov; 73(1-2):137-43.
  4. Kim H, et al., Inhibitory effect of Asparagus cochinchinensis on tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion from astrocytes.Int J Immunopharmacol. 1998 Apr-May; 20(4-5):153-62.
  5. Shao Y, et al., Anti-tumor activity of the crude saponins obtained from asparagus. Cancer Lett. 1996 Jun 24; 104(1):31-6.
  6. Slesak B, et al., Lectin binding ability of B-chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells. Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch. 1990; 117(1):31-5.
  7. Slesak B, et al., Binding of lectins to human leukaemic cells.Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch. 1989; 116(2):251-9.
  8. Strauchen JA, Lectin receptors as markers of lymphoid cells. II. Reed-Sternberg cells share lectin-binding properties of monocyte macrophages. Am J Pathol. 1984 Sep; 116(3):370-6.

IN VIVO:

  1. Dhuley JN. Effect of some Indian herbs on macrophage functions in ochratoxin A treated mice.J Ethnopharmacol. 1997 Sep; 58(1):15-20.
  2. Rao AR. Inhibitory action of Asparagus racemosus on DMBA-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Int J Cancer. 1981 Nov 15; 28(5):607-10.

CLINICAL:

  1. Katayama S. [The evaluation of uterine endocervical lesions by cervicoscopy of lateral view type (clinical advantages for reduction of traditional surgical management of uterine cervical cancer)]. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1984 Oct; 36(10):1884-92. Japanese.

 

Safety

用药忌宜: 虚寒泄泻及外感风寒致嗽者,皆忌服。《本草正》:虚寒假热,脾肾溏泄最忌。

 
   
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