General

Scientific Names: Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet

Common Names: Tu Bei Mu, Da Bei Mu, Jia Bei Mu, Di Ku Dan, Cao Bei.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为葫芦科植物土贝母Bolbostemma paniculatum(Maxim.)Franquet的块茎。

植物特征: 多年生攀援草本,长1~3米。鳞茎肥厚,肉质,白色,呈不规则球形,直径达3厘米。茎纤弱,顶端有分叉的卷须。单叶互生,叶片卵状近圆形,长4~10厘米,与宽近相等,掌状5~7裂,具柄。腋生疏圆锥花序;花单性,雌雄异株;花萼淡绿色,先端渐尖呈细长线状;花冠与花萼相似;雄蕊5,1枚分离,其余4枚基部两两成对连合;雌花子房下位,3室,近球形,花柱3,柱头2裂为6个。蒴果圆筒状,成熟后顶端开裂。种子斜方形,棕黑色,顶端具膜质翅。花期6~8月,果期7~9月。

生药材鉴定: 干燥块茎呈不规则块状,多角或三棱形,高0.5~1.5厘米,直径0.7~2厘米;暗棕色至半透明的红棕色,表面凹凸不平、多裂纹,顶端常有一突起的芽伏物;质坚硬,不易拆断,断面角质,光亮而平滑;微有焦糊气,味微咸而苦。以个大、红棕色、质坚实、有亮光、半透明者为佳。

 

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 块茎中含有麦芽糖、蔗糖、麦芽酚(matol)、7,16,25(26)-豆甾三烯醇、棕榈酸、豆甾三烯醇-3-0-葡萄糖、土贝母皂甙(tubeimoside)A以及抗癌有效成分结晶D.E等。

 

 

 

Efficacy

Tubeimu, Bolbostemma pani- culatum(Maxim.) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal herb. Tubeimoside I displayed growth inhibitory activity against CNE-2Z cells with IC(50) values of 32.5, 20.7, and 16.7 micromol/L for 24, 48, and 72 hours, and CNE-2Z cells showed typical apoptotic morphological features observed by fluorescent microscopy and electronic microscopy.In CNE-2Z cells occurred typical "Ladder"bands after being exposed to tubeimoside I (10 micromol/L, 24, 48, 72 hours; 30, 40, 50, 60 micromol/L, 12 hours). Sub-G1 peak was found using flow cytometry. When CNE-2Z cells were exposed to tubeimoside I (50 micromol/L, 12 hours), the apoptosis index was 72.8%. The down regulation and phosphorylation of bcl-2 (an inhibitor of apoptosis) were detected at 1 hour after the addition of tubeimoside I. In contrast, the levels of bax appeared to be significantly upregulated at 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after the addition of tubeimoside I. CONCLUSION: Tubeimoside I can induce the apoptosis of CNE-2Z cells, and the induction of apoptosis by tubeimoside I is closely associated with downregulation and phosphorylation of bcl-2 and bax activation. (source)

Tubeimosides I, II, and III were isolated from tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet (Cucurbitaceae), a Chinese folk medicine,"Tubeimu", and their anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-tumorigenic activities, and acute toxicity were studied in vivo. Tubeimosides I, II, and III are all natural analogues of oleanane type of triterpenoid saponins from the same medicinal plant, and all show anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promo ting effects. However, the anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-tumorigenic activities of tubeimoside II are stronger than those of tubeimoside I, and the acute toxicity of tubeimoside II is lower than that of tubeimoside I; the anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-tumorigenic activities of tubeimoside III are stronger than those of tubeimoside II, and the acute toxicity of tubeimoside III is also stronger than that of tubeimoside II. CONCLUSION: C-16 hydroxyl group of tubeimoside II plays an important role in enhancing biological activity of tubeimoside II and in decreasing its toxicity. The difference of chemical structure in B and/or C position between tubeimosides III and II plays an important role in enhancing biological activity and toxicity of tubeimoside III. Therefore tubeimosidre II may be the most promising agent for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy among tubeimosides I, II, and III. (source)

用于治疗瘿瘤乳腺癌等。

(1)土贝母、生香附、煅牡蛎各120g,全瓜蒌、生地黄各150g,漏芦、白芥子、野茯苓、炒麦芽各90g,王不留行、制半夏、全当归、福桔叶、炒白芍、小麦皮、广陈皮、蒲公英、香连翅各60g,炮山甲、潼木通、川抚芎、西粉草各30g,共开细末,蒲公英和香连翅则煎汤代水泛为丸。每日服3次,每次6g。结合辨证治疗5例乳腺癌,结果4例近期治愈,肿块消失,1例好转。

(2)单用土贝母皂甙擦剂,每天擦2~4次,治疗44例疣患者;单纯肌肉注射土贝母皂甙每次2mg(每安瓿2mg),治57例;另以两种方法混合治疗151例,总共治疗252例。结果痊愈219例、显效21例、好转8例、无效4例,总有效率为98.4% [徐汉卿,等。中医杂志,1984,25(6):49]。

中药土贝母为葫芦科植物土贝母〔 Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim). Franquet, BPF 〕的干燥块茎 . 其味苦、微寒,具散结祛痰、消肿、解毒清热之功效. 几个 世纪以来,从古至今人们用它来治疗乳岩、乳痈、乳腺增生、皮肤疣、单纯疱疹等各种疾病. 由于它的毒副作用小,人们除了继续沿用古人的方剂外,还试图分离 提取其有效成分,用于各种疾病的治疗及研究其作用机制. 研究结果表明 BP F 提取物具有有效的抗肿瘤活性及低毒性,对小鼠 S-180 实体瘤和 U14 , H 22 肿瘤有明显的抑制作用,其水煎剂对小鼠实验诱发宫颈癌有明显的抑 制作用. (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Wang XY, et al., [Apoptosis of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2Z cells induced by tubeimoside I]. Ai Zheng. 2003 Aug; 22(8):806-11. Chinese.
  2. Yu TX, et al., Structure-activity relationship of tubeimosides in anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promoting effects. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 May; 22(5):463-8.
  3. Yu L, et al., Inhibition of the tumor promoting action of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate by tubeimoside III isolated from Bolbostemma paniculatum. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Dec; 16(12):3045-8.
  4. Yu LJ, et al., Potent anti-tumorigenic effect of tubeimoside 1 isolated from the bulb of Bolbostemma paniculatum (Maxim) Franquet. Int J Cancer. 1992 Feb 20; 50(4):635-8.

IN VIVO:

  1. Yu TX, et al., Structure-activity relationship of tubeimosides in anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promoting effects. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 May; 22(5):463-8.
  2. Yu L, et al., Inhibition of the tumor promoting action of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate by tubeimoside III isolated from Bolbostemma paniculatum. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Dec; 16(12):3045-8.

 

 

Safety


 
   
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