General

Scientific Names: Aconitum carmichaeli Debx, Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata.

Common Names: Fu Zi, Prepared Common Monkshood Daughter Root, Prepared daughter root of Common Monkshood.

BOTANICAL:

Source
The root of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., family Ranuncutaceae.

Characteristics
1. Salty Aconiti. Conical, 3-5 cm long, 2-4 cm in diameter. Surface grey-dark covered with salt powder, broad at the apex, with depressed bud scars in the middle and tubercular branched roots and scars around. Heavy in weight.
2. Black Aconiti. Conical pieces, broad at the upper, narrow at lower, as long and broad as salty Aconiti, 0.2-0.5 cm thick. Surface dark-brown, section dull yellow, semi-opaque, lustrous, showing longitudinal vascular bundles.
3. White Aconiti. Similar with Black Aconiti in size, with no peel, yellowwhite. Acrid in taste, strongly heat in nature, toxicity.
4. Bland Aconiti. Longitudinally cut pieces, yellow-white, semi-opaque with peel. Acrid in taste, heat in nature, toxicity reduced, and attributive to heart, kidney and spleen channels.

毛茛科 (Ranunculaceae)Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. 的母根加工为川乌,子根加工为附子。 6 月下旬至 8 月上旬采挖,除去子根、须根及泥沙,晒干称川乌。将采挖得的乌头子根,除去须根及泥沙,习称“泥附子”,再进一步分别加工为盐附子、黑顺片、白附片。
   盐附子:选择个大、均匀的泥附子洗净,浸入食用胆巴的水溶液中,过夜,再加食盐,继续浸泡,每日取出晒晾,并逐渐延长晒晾时间,直至附子表面出现大量结晶盐霜并体质变硬为止。
   黑顺片:取泥附子,按大小分别洗净,浸入食用胆巴的水溶液中数日,连同浸液煮至透心,捞出,水漂,纵切成约 0.5cm 的厚片,再用水浸漂,用调色液使附片染成浓茶色,取出,蒸到出现油面、光泽后,烘至半干,再晒干或继续烘干。
   白附片:选择大小均匀的泥附子,洗净,浸入食用胆巴的水溶液中数日,连同浸液煮至透水,捞出,剥去外皮,纵切成约 0.3cm 的厚片,用水浸漂,取出,蒸透,晒至半干,以硫磺熏后晒干。

 

Pharmacology

Chemical ingredients: Hypaconitine, aconitine, mesaconitine, talatisamine, chuan-wu-base A, chuan-wu base B, carmichaeline, atisines, aminophenols, demethylcoclaurine, higenamine.

Pharmacological Action
1. Aconitine is a physiologically active component, and becomes aconine aftei hydrolized. The toxicity of aconine is lower than aconitine.
2. The prepared products may dilate the blood vessels of lower limbs and coronary artery, and increase coronary flow.
3. Aconine and hypaconitine are analgesics and sedatives.
4. Acclerating the metabolism of lipids and cholesterol.
5. LD50 of aconitine is 0.295 mg/kg in mice hypodermally and that of the decoction of prepared aconite is 17.42 g/kg in mice orally.
6. Its components, higenamine and coryneine chloride exert a significant cardiotonic effect.

中药化学成分: 附子为川乌子根的加工品,主含毒性较小的单酯类生物碱:苯甲酰乌头胺(benzoyla-conine)、苯甲酰中乌头胺(benzoylmesaconine)、苯甲酰次乌头胺(benzoyl hypaconine),甚至被水解为毒性更小的胺醇类碱:乌头胺(aconine)、中乌头胺(mesaconine)、次乌头胺(hypaconine)。从水提物中分得新江油乌碱(neojiangyouacontine)、尿嘧啶、华北乌头碱、黄草乌头碱、尼奥灵和附子亭等。从日本乌头所加工的附子中已分离出具有强心作用的微量有效成分dl-去甲基衡州乌药碱(dl-demethylcoclaurine,higenamine)。又报道从附子中分出一种棍掌碱(coryneine)。除生物碱外,生附子尚含脂类成分约0.7%,从中分出4种成分,其中含量较多的是附子脂酸即Δ3,11-二十碳双烯酸;其次为附子磷脂酸钙、β-谷甾醇及其脂肪酸酯。

  1. Taki M, et al., 8-O-cinnamoylneoline, a new alkaloid from the flower buds of Aconitum carmichaeli and its toxic and analgesic activities. Planta Med. 2003 Sep.
  2. Cao H, et al., [Pharmacological study on Tianxiong (tuber of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx.), a Chinese drug for reinforcing the kidney yang retail in Hong Kong Market]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Jun.
  3. Zhang WD, et al., [Studies on the alkaloid constituents of Jiangyou fu-zi Aconitum carmimichaeli from Sichuan]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992.
  4. Wang JZ, et al., [Studies on alkaloids isolated from Jiangyou fu zi (Aconitum carmichaeli Debx)]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1985 Jan.
  5. Chen DH, et al., [Studies on the constituents of lateral root of Aconitum carmichaeli (Fu-Zi). I. Isolation and structural determination of salsolinol]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1982 Oct.

 

Efficacy

对免疫功能的影响:观察附子注射液对小鼠血清溶菌酶活性、血液抗体及脾脏抗体细胞和对豚鼠血清补体含量的影响,发现可提高小鼠体液免疫功能及豚鼠血清补体含量,但对小鼠血清溶菌酶活性无明显影响;以RE花环及细胞转化实验研究对机体细胞免疫影响时发现,附子注射液可使T细胞和RE花环形成细胞明显上升,0.4ml/(kg.d)共9天(皮下注射),可使兔淋巴细胞转化率显著上升,与对照比较P<0.01。

IN VITRO:

  1. Petrov AA. [Studies on antineoplastic properties of the hydrochloride salt of Kirg Aconitum bases and of its alkaloids under experimental conditions]. Sov Zdravookhr Kirg. 1965 Jul-Aug.

IN VIVO:

  1. Marchenko MM, et al., [Activity of cytoplasmic proteinases from rat liver in Heren's carcinoma during tumor growth and treatment with medicinal herbs]. Ukr biokhim Zh. 2000 May-Jun.

 

Safety

用药忌宜: 阴虚阳盛,真热假寒及孕妇均禁服。

不良反应及治疗: 附子中含乌头,虽其含量较乌头为低,但因服用不当而引起中毒;除服用量过大或煎煮时间过短外,与机体敏感性有关。《本草汇言》:若病阴虚内热或阳极似阴之证,误用之,祸不旋踵。附子中亦含乌头碱,虽其含量较乌头为低,但因服用不当而引起中毒者却屡见不鲜。其原因除与剂量过大、煎煮时间过短,及机体对药物的敏感性等有关外,与药物品种及服法等也有密切关系;曾有1例用云南腾冲所产附子3钱煎后连渣服下,即引起严重中毒。中毒表现与乌头基本相同,如口唇、肢体发麻,恶心,呕吐,心慌,气促,烦躁不安,甚至昏迷,间或抽搐,严重者心跳、呼吸暂停,心电图显示室性过早搏动,而呈阿-斯二氏综合征象。中毒者如能及时抢救,一般均可恢复。此外,曾报道1例用附子外敷脐部引起接触性皮炎,可能系过敏所致。

毒理学: 附子(未加工生品)小鼠口服LD50为5.49g/kg,静脉注射为0.49g/kg。加工后附子小鼠口服LD50为16lg/kg,静脉注射为2.8g/kg。熟附片煎剂小鼠口服和静脉注射的LD50分别为17.42g/kg和3.516g/kg。附子水煎醇沉液1次腹腔注射的小鼠LD50为26.30g/kg。去甲乌药碱小鼠静脉注射LD50为58.9mg/kg,腹腔注射为300mg/kg,口服为3.35g/kg。双酯型和单脂型三萜类生物碱的毒性见表5。乌头碱的主要毒性是抑制呼吸及引起心律失常,对心脏的毒性作用是通过兴奋中枢和对心脏的直接作用所引起。附子(未加工生品)小鼠口服LD50为5.49g/kg,静脉注射为0.49g/kg。加工后附子小鼠口服的LD50为16lg/kg,静脉注射为2.8g/kg。熟附片煎剂小鼠口服和静脉注射的LD50分别为17.42g/kg和3.516g/kg。附子水煎醇沉液1次腹腔注射的小鼠LD50为26.30g/kg。去甲乌药碱小鼠静脉注射LD50为58.9mg/kg,腹腔注射为300mg/kg,口服为3.35g/kg。双酯型和单脂型三萜类生物碱的毒性见表5。乌头碱的主要毒性是抑制呼吸及引起心律失常,对心脏的毒性作用是通过兴奋中枢和对心脏的直接作用所引起。

 

 

 

 

   
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