General

Scientific Names: Abrus Precatorius L.

Common Names: Xiang Si Zi, Xiang Si, Xiang Si Dou, Hong Dou, Hei Tou Xiao Ji, Tu Gan Cao, Ji Mu Zhu, Ji Mu Zi, Ji Mu Zhen Zhu, Hong Zhu Mu.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 本品为豆科植物相思子Abrus precatorius L.的干燥成熟种子。

植物特征: 細弱纏繞藤本,長可達數米。莖基部稍木質,細長,綠色,表面疏生白色伏貼細硬毛。雙數羽狀複葉互生,葉軸被伏貼細硬毛;小葉8~20對,具短柄,先端小葉片退化成短刺;小葉片長方形或長方倒卵形,長5~20mm,寬3~8mm,先端圓,具細尖,基部圓形或寬楔形,全緣,下面被伏貼細硬毛。春、夏開淡紫色花,總狀花序腋生,總花梗粗短,花小,有短梗,數朵一簇,集生花序軸上;花萼鐘狀,萼齒4;花冠蝶形,旗瓣基部有三角狀的爪,翼瓣與龍骨瓣狹窄,子房有毛。莢果長圓形或長方形,先端有短喙,被毛;種子1~6個,橢圓形,上部朱紅色,種臍部分黑色,有光澤。

生药材鉴定: 本品呈椭圆形或类球形,长5~7mm,直径4~6mm。 一端约2/3为鲜红色,另一端约1/3为黑色,少数为全黑色,平滑有光泽。 种脐白色,呈椭圆形凹陷,位于黑色端侧面。 质坚硬,不易破碎,击碎后可见黄白色子叶两枚。 具豆腥气,味微苦、涩。

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 種子含相思子鹼(1-abrine即N-甲基色氨酸,C12H14O2N2,為一種發泡性毒素)約1.5%,相思子酸(abrussic acid)、沒食子酸(gallic acid)、刺桐鹼(hypaphorine)及刺桐鹼甲醚、紅豆鹼(precatorine,C14H11O6N);此外,尚含毒蛋白,油脂中含鯊油烯(squalene)、β-香樹精(β-amyrin)、豆甾醇、β-谷甾醇、菜油甾醇(campesterol)、環阿烯醇(cycloartenol),根、莖、葉含刺桐鹼。根、藤、葉及種子含胡蘆巴鹼(trigonelline)。根、莖及葉並含甘草酸(glycyrrhizic acid)。

 

 

Efficacy

抗肿瘤作用: 相思子毒蛋白是具有毒性的抗癌活性成分,對Ehriich腹水癌、L1210白血病、B16黑色素瘤、lewis肺癌、子宮癌、子宮肉瘤、卵巢癌、卵巢肉瘤、乳房癌、直腸癌、纖維肉瘤、Ewing氏肉瘤、吉田肉瘤等多種癌細胞產生凝集,變形並停止分裂,使DNA合成受到抑制,對細胞蛋白質合成有強烈的抑制作用。

 

IN VITRO:

  1. Ohba H, et al., Plant-derived abrin-a induces apoptosis in cultured leukemic cell lines by different mechanisms. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Mar 1; 195(2):182-93.
  2. Ohba H,et al., Spectroscopic analysis of the cytoagglutinating activity of abrin-b isolated from Abrus precatorius seeds against leukemic cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1997 Apr; 61(4):737-9.
  3. Wu AM, et al., Binding properties of a blood group Le(a+) active sialoglycoprotein, purified from human ovarian cyst, with applied lectins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Jun 7; 1316(2):139-44.
  4. Ohya Y, et al., Release behaviour of 5-fluorouracil from chitosan-gel microspheres immobilizing 5-fluorouracil derivative coated with polysaccharides and their cell specific recognition. J Microencapsul. 1993 Jan-Mar; 10(1):1-9.
  5. Lin JY, et al., Isolation of antitumor proteins abrin-A and abrin-B from Abrus precatorius. Int J Pept Protein Res. 1978 Nov; 12(5):311-7.
  6. Tung TC, [Studies on toxic proteins of seeds of Abrus precatorius (author's transl)]. Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi. 1978 Sep; 77(9):699-705. Chinese.
  7. Uhlenbruck G, et al., Different glycosubstances and galactans in the albumin gland and eggs of Achatina fulica. Z Immunitatsforsch Immunobiol. 1976 Nov; 152(3):220-30.
  8. Lalithakumari H, et al., Purification of proteins from Abrus precatorius L. & their biological properties. Indian J Biochem. 1971 Dec; 8(4):321-3.
  9. Reddy VV, et al., Effect of Abrus precatorius L. on experimental tumors. Cancer Res. 1969 Jul; 29(7):1447-51.

 

 

Safety

用药忌宜: 種子含多種毒性蛋白,有強烈毒性,服 0.5mg 可致中毒。遇有中毒情況可按解救毒蛋白中毒的常規處理。民間解救法用甘草 9 克,金銀花 12 克,清水 2 碗煎至 1 碗飲服。本品千萬不可誤食或生吞。

 
   
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