General

Scientific Names: Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge.

Common Names: Zhi Mu , Suan Ban Zi Cao, Lian Mu, Ye Liao, Di Shen, Shui Shen, Huo Mu, Qi Mu, Ti Mu, Nu Lei.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为百合科植物知母Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge 的根茎。

植物特征: 多年生草本。叶基生,线形,质捎硬功夫,长20~70cm,宽0.3~0.6cm。花茎高40~60cm,散生鳞片状小苞片;花2~6朵一簇散生地花序轴上,花被片 6,黄色或紫堇色;雄蕊3,与内轮花被片对生。蒴果长卵形,具6纵棱。花期5~8月,果期8~9月。

生药材鉴定: 毛知母扁圆形长条状,略弯曲,长3~5,直径0.8~1.5cm。表面黄棕色至棕色,一端残留淡黄色叶基,上面有1纵沟,具紧密排列的环状节,节上密生黄棕色的残存叶基,由两侧集向上方纵沟;下面隆起而略皱缩,有凹陷或突起的点状根痕。质硬,断面黄白色。气微。味微甜、略苦。

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 主含皂甙。根茎含总皂甙约6%,从中检出6种皂甙,分别称为知母皂甙(Timosaponin) A -Ⅰ、A-Ⅱ、A-Ⅲ、A-Ⅳ、B-Ⅰ和 B-Ⅱ,其中知母皂甙A-Ⅲ是萨尔萨皂甙元(Sarsasapogenin)与知母双糖[Timobiose,即B一葡萄糖(1一2)B一半乳糖〕结合而成的双糖甙,知母皂甙 A一Ⅰ是萨尔萨皂甙元 B一D一吡喃半乳糖甙。知母根茎中的皂甙元主要是萨尔萨皂甙元,干根中的含量约0.5% ,此外还有吗尔考皂甙元(Markogenin)、新芰脱皂甙元(Neogitogenin)。以前从知母根茎中分出的皂甙曾称为知母宁(Asphonin),推测是吗尔考皂甙、知母皂甙 A一Ⅲ、A一Ⅳ、B等的混合物。根茎尚含多量的还原糖和粘液质、鞣酸、脂肪油等,又每克含尼克酸188微克,尼克酰胺12微克。另含芒果甙(Mangiferin,Chimonin) 0.5%。地上部分含芒果甙和异芒果甙(Isomangiferin)。叶含芒果甙约0.7%。花含皂甙,水解后得熔点为246~248℃的甙元 C27 H42一44 O4 。根茎含多种皂甙,其皂甙元为菝葜皂甙元(sarsasapogenin),其中知母皂甙A-Ⅰ(timo-saponin A-Ⅰ)为菝葜皂甙元和1分子半乳糖结合的甙,知母皂甙A-Ⅲ(timosaponin A-Ⅲ)为知母皂甙A-Ⅰ和1分子葡萄糖结合的甙,知母皂甙B-Ⅰ(timosaponin B-Ⅰ)为菝葜皂甙元与1分子半乳糖和2分子葡萄糖结合的甙,知母皂甙A-Ⅱ、A-Ⅳ、B-Ⅱ的结构尚不明;尚有伪原知母皂甙A-Ⅲ (pseudoprototimosaponin A-Ⅲ)。鲜根茎(夏季采)所含皂甙,其皂甙元除菝葜皂甙元外,尚分离得吗尔考皂甙元(markogenin)和新芰皂甙元(neogitogenin)。此外,尚含胆碱、烟酸、泛酸以及杧果甙(mangiferin)。

 

 

 

Efficacy

Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted. (source)

cis-Hinokiresinol (CHR) is a norlignan constituent from Anemarrhena asphodeloides BUNGE (Liliaceae), which shows hyaluronidase inhibitory activity. In the present studies, we have demonstrated that CHR selectively inhibited endothelial cell proliferation compared with cancer cells, and especially basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, endothelial cell migration and tube formation, two important steps in the angiogenic process, were also inhibited by CHR. Moreover, CHR reduced the vessel growth induced by VEGF in the mouse corneal neovascularization model. These results suggest that CHR may prove useful for the development of a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. (source)

32 cases of postoperative osteogenic sarcoma treated by chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicinal herbs were compared with 26 similar cases as control group. The drugs used in chemotherapy consisted of two regimens, DDP and high-dose MTX plus VCR. The results showed that the side effects of chemotherapy in control group were consistent with literatures; while the group treated with Chinese medicinal herbs suffered less toxic effects, the difference between two groups was statistically significant. The medicinal herbs used to reduce the side effects induced by DDP was Pinellia ternata, Amomum cardamomum, Bambusa textilis, Citrus reticulata etc.; while the herbs used to alleviate the adverse effects of high-dose MTX plus VCR was Gypsum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Rehmannia glutinosa, Ophiopogon japonicus, Scrophularia ningpoensis, etc. (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Shoemaker M, et al., In vitro anticancer activity of twelve Chinese medicinal herbs. Phytother Res. 2005 Jul; 19(7):649-51.
  2. Jeong SJ, et al., cis-hinokiresinol, a norlignan from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, inhibits angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Dec; 26(12):1721-4.
  3. Takeda Y, et al., Growth inhibition and apoptosis of gastric cancer cell lines by Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge. J Gastroenterol. 2001 Feb; 36(2):79-90.

IN VIVO:

  1. Jeong SJ, et al., cis-hinokiresinol, a norlignan from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, inhibits angiogenic response in vitro and in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Dec; 26(12):1721-4.

 

CLINICAL:

  1. Liu JQ, et al., [32 cases of postoperative osteogenic sarcoma treated by chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicinal herbs]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1993 Mar; 13(3):150-2, 132. Chinese.

 

 

Safety

用药忌宜:脾胃虚寒,大便溏泄者忌服。①《别录》:“多服令人泄。”②《医学入门》:“凡肺中寒嗽,肾气虚脱,无火症而尺脉 微弱者禁用。”③《本草经疏》:“阳痿及易举易痿,泄泻脾弱,饮食不消化,胃虚不思食,肾虚溏泄等证,法并禁用。”④《本经逢原》:“外感表证未除、泻痢燥渴忌之。脾胃虚 热人误服,令人作泻减食,故虚损大忌。”

 
   
Search