General

Scientific Names: Aster tataricus L. f.

Common Names: Zi Wan, Qing Wan, Xiao Bian, Fan Hun Cao, Shan Bai Cai.

 

BOTANICAL:

来 源: 为菊科植物紫菀 Aster tataricus L. f. 的根及根茎。

植物特征: 多年生草本,高1~1.5m。茎直立,上部疏生短毛,基生叶丛生,长椭圆形,基部渐狭成翼状柄,边缘具锯齿,两面疏生糙毛,叶柄长,花期枯萎;茎生叶互生,卵形或长椭圆形,渐上无柄。头状花序排成伞房状,有长梗,密被短毛;总苞半球形,总苞片3层,边缘紫红色;舌状花蓝紫色,筒状花黄色。瘦果有短毛,冠毛灰白色或带红色。花期7~8月,果期8~10月。

生药材鉴定: 干燥的根茎呈圆形的疙瘩头状,长约2~6厘米,径约 1.5~3厘米,顶端有茎基及叶柄的残痕,底部常有一条未除净的母根,直径约3毫米,淡灰黄色,纤维性,质稍硬;疙瘩头下簇生许多细根,很长约5~14厘米,多编成辫状;表面紫红色或灰红色,有纵皱纹。质柔韧,不易折断,断面灰白色有紫边。微有香气,味甜微苦。以根长、色紫、质柔韧、去净茎苗者为佳。

 

 

 

Pharmacology

化学成分: 根含紫菀酮(shionone)、槲皮素、无羁萜、表无羁萜和挥发油,尚含皂甙。报道皂甙种类较多,已确定结构的有:紫菀皂甙A、B、C、D、E、F(aster saponins A,B,C,D,E,F)等,以及紫菀皂甙Ha、紫菀皂甙Hb、紫菀皂甙Hc、紫菀皂甙Hd等。并含紫菀甙A、B(shionoside A,B)。紫菀皂甙的水解产物为常春藤皂甙元(hederagenin)。紫菀挥发油中含毛叶醇(lachnophyllol)、毛叶醇乙酯(lachnophyllol acetate)、茴香醚(anethole)、烃、脂肪酸、芳香酸等,并分得琥珀酸。

 

 

 

Efficacy

Astins, a family of cyclopentapeptides, isolated from the roots of a medicinal plant Aster tataricus (Compositae), show antitumour activity. Their chemical structures consist of a 16-membered ring system containing a unique beta,gamma-dichlorinated proline [Pro(Cl2)], other non-coded amino acid residues, and a cis conformation in one of the peptide bonds. The beta,gamma-dichlorinated proline residue is considered to play an important role in their antineoplastic activities in vitro on nasopharynx carcinoma (KB) cells and in vivo on sarcoma 180 ascites and P388 lymphocytic leukaemia in mice. The acyclic astins without Pro(Cl2) do not show antitumour activity against S-180 ascites in vivo, suggesting that the cyclic nature of astins plays an important role in their antitumour activities. We synthesized new astin-related cyclopeptides differing from the natural product for the presence of some non-proteinogenic amino acid residues: Aib, Abu, -S(beta3)-hPhe and a peptide bond surrogate (-SO2-NH-) and we tested for their antitumour effect. We observed cytotoxic effects of the newly synthesized cyclic astins, but not with the acyclic analogue astins. We also observed that the cyclic astin induced apoptosis in a human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (NPA cell line) and that apoptotis was associated with activation of caspases. The caspase family inhibitor, Z-Val-Asp-(OMe)-FMK, protected NPA cells from cyclic analogue astin-induced apoptosis. To determine which caspase was specifically activated, we assayed caspase activity in astin-treated cells in the presence of specific caspase and 8, 9 or 3 inhibitors, i.e. Z-IETD-FMK, Z-LEHD-FMK Z-DEVD-FMK, which inhibit caspases 8, 9 and 3, respectively. The data presented here show selective antineoplastic properties of the newly synthesized cyclic astins, and suggest, for the first time, a mechanism for their antineoplastic action through the activation of apoptotic pathway. (source)

Antitumor activities on Sarcoma 180A of a series of cyclic pentapeptides, astins, isolated from the roots of Aster tataricus, were examined. The activities on various congeners of the dichlorinated proline residues prepared by chemical conversion and a hepatic microsomal biotransformation in rats suggested that 1,2-cis dichlorinated proline residues of astins A, B and C play an important role in the antitumor activity of astins. (source)

败毒抗癌,用于癌瘤积毒:   

肺癌 紫菀、蚤休、芙蓉花、枇杷叶、百部、昆布、海藻、生牡蛎各15克,浙贝、橘核、橘红各9克,生地、玄参各12克,白花蛇舌草、茅根、铺地锦、薏苡仁、夏枯草各30克 切碎,水煎3次分服。能使咳嗽痰血等症状缓解,继续至X线复查阴影消失。   

支气管腺癌 紫菀、石见穿、紫草各30克,蒲公英15克,炒山栀、王不留行各9克,沙参、麦冬、生地、百部、贝母、地榆各6克 水煎3次分服。迄喘鸣痰稠带血缓解,气管阻塞通畅,肿瘤块影缩小,胸痛消失。 (source)

IN VITRO:

  1. Cozzolino R, et al., Antineoplastic cyclic astin analogues kill tumour cells via caspase-mediated induction of apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr; 26(4):733-9. Epub 2005 Jan 20.
  2. Morita H, et al., Cyclic peptides from higher plants. XXVIII. Antitumor activity and hepatic microsomal biotransformation of cyclic pentapeptides, astins, from Aster tataricus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1996 May; 44(5):1026-32.
  3. Morita H, et al., Structure of a new peptide, astin J, from Aster tataricus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1995 Feb; 43(2):271-3.
  4. Morita H, et al., Astins A and B, antitumor cyclic pentapeptides from Aster tataricus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1993 May; 41(5):992-3.


IN VIVO:

  1. Cozzolino R, et al., Antineoplastic cyclic astin analogues kill tumour cells via caspase-mediated induction of apoptosis. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr; 26(4):733-9. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

 

 

 

Safety

宜忌: 有实热者忌服。《本草经集注》:"款冬为使。恶天雄、瞿麦、雷丸、远志。畏茵陈蒿。"《唐本草》:"恶藁本。"《本草正》:"劳伤肺肾、水亏金燥而咳喘失血者非所。


 
   
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